Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer
treatment that boosts the body's natural defenses to fight cancer.
It uses substances made by the body or in a laboratory to improve
or restore immune system function.
Immunotherapy may work by:
Stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells
Stopping cancer from spreading to other parts of the body
Helping the immune system work better at destroying cancer cells
Types of immunotherapies
1.Immune checkpoint therapy helps cancer-fighting
immune cells, called T cells, mount a longer-lasting response
against the cancer. Eg.Pembrolizumab, Nivolumab, Atezolizumab,
2.Adoptive cellular therapy increases the number and/or effectiveness of immune cells, usually T cells, which improves the power of the immune response against the cancer.
There are three main types of adoptive cellular therapy:
a.Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy gives patients large amounts of T cells that are all genetically engineered to find and fight the cancer.
b.Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy uses a patient’s T cells that are collected from a piece of surgically-removed tumor. While these cells may recognize the cancer, there are too few of them to succeed. The number of these cells is increased substantially in the lab and then given back to the patient.
c.Endogenous T-cell (ETC) therapy uses T cells from a patient’s blood. From this diverse pool of T cells, doctors select only those that may recognize signatures specific to the cancer. The number of these specific T cells is increased substantially and then given back to the patient.
Cancer vaccines help the body recognize cancer cells and stimulate the immune system to destroy them. Eg Sipuleucel-T in prostate cancer.
3.Cytokine therapy relies on proteins called interferons and interleukins to trigger an immune response. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is used to treat kidney cancers and melanomas that have spread to other regions of the body. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is currently being used to treat melanoma, kidney cancer and certain leukemias and lymphomas.
At Vydehi Cancer Centre, the latest therapies - Immune checkpoint blockade therapies like Pembrolizumab, Nivolumab are being given to the patients.
India is the third highest country in terms of cancer deaths and this graph is increasing by the day. Established in 2007,Vydehi Cancer Centre, is consistently working 24*7 for the benefit of the patients and our endeavour is to serve them and our society to help fight this dreaded disease.